Good drainage in the landscape is as important as proper irrigation. Too much water in landscaped areas can result in numerous plant diseases and can even kill sensitive plants like expensive evergreens. Overly wet turf areas are prone to soil compaction and scarring from footprints and mowing equipment. In addition, drainage around buildings is important to prevent leaks and moisture intrusion into building foundations and walls.
Drainage systems can use a variety of techniques to remove unwanted water from an area, whether on a residential, commercial, or golf course site....
Often Drainage Issues can be caused by three simple fixes:
A French drain, drain tile, perimeter drain or land drain is ditch covered with gravel or rock that redirects surface and ground water away from an area. A French drain can have hollow pipes along the bottom to quickly vent water that seeps down through the upper gravel or rock. French drains are common drainage systems, primarily used to prevent ground and surface water from penetrating or damaging building foundations. Alternatively, the French drain technique may be used to distribute water, such as that which flows from the outlet of a typical septic tank sewage treatment system. French drains are also used behind retaining walls to relieve ground water pressure.
A dry creek bed offers a unique opportunity for a homeowner concerned about drainage. Flooding problems on your property can be remedied with the construction of an easy channel from the water source to the final drainage point. You can landscape a dry creek bed to keep water away from your home without sacrificing your landscaping style.
A dry well is an underground structure that disposes of unwanted water, most commonly stormwater runoff, by dissipating it into the ground, where it merges with the local groundwater.
A dry well is a passive structure. Water flows through it under the influence of gravity. A dry well receives water from one or more entry pipes or channels at its top. A dry well discharges the same water through a number of small exit openings distributed over a larger surface area, the side(s) and bottom of the dry well. When a dry well is above the water table, most of its internal volume will contain air. Such a dry well can accept an initial inrush of water very quickly, until the air is displaced. After that, the dry well can only accept water as fast as it can dissipate water. Some dry wells deliberately incorporate a large storage capacity, so that they can accept a large amount of water very quickly and then dissipate it gradually over time, a method that is compatible with the intermittent nature of rainfall. A dry well maintains the connection between its inflow and outflow openings by resisting collapse and resisting clogging.
Simple dry wells consist of a pit filled with gravel, riprap, rubble, or other debris. Such pits resist collapse, but do not have much storage capacity because their interior volume is mostly filled by stone. A more advanced dry well defines a large interior storage volume by a reinforced concrete cylinder with perforated sides and bottom. These dry wells are usually buried completely, so that they do not take up any land area. The dry wells for a parking lot's storm drains are usually buried below the same parking lot.
A French drain can resemble a dry well that is not covered. A covered dry well that disposes of sewage is called a cesspool, while an open pit that receives storm water and dissipates it into the ground is called a recharge basin or infiltration basin.
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